|Present position and title||Research Fellow, Ph. D. cantab.|
Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience (CIN)
Institute for Ophthalmic Research
University of Tübingen
Phone: +49 (0)7071 29-84749
Fax: +49 (0)7071 29-25011
Personal webpage: tombaden.wordpress.com
|Year||Degree||University||Field of study|
|2012||Summer School||BCCN Tübingen||Computational Vision|
|2004 - 2008||Ph. D.||Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK||Auditory Neuroscience|
|2005||Summer School||Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth||Electrophysiological techniques|
|2001||BA/MA hons.||University of Cambridge, UK||Natural Sciences Part II Neuroscience|
|2010||CIN/BCCN, Inst. Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen||Postdoctoral Researcher||Visual Neuroscience|
|2008 – 2010||Medical Research Council, Laboratory for Mol. Biology, Cambridge, UK||Postdoctoral Researcher||Visual Neuroscience|
|2003||Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK||Summer Student||Visual Neuroscience|
|2000 – 2001||Inst. Neuropathology, University of Bonn||Civil service /lab technician||Neurogenetics|
Sensory Information Processing
I am interested how individual and small groups of neurons arranged into microcircuits break sensory patterns into parallel, highly specific representations of the outside world. Following my PhD on auditory processing by neurons of the cricket auditory pathway (lab of B. Hedwig, Dept. Zoology, Cambridge, UK) I studied visual processing by retinal bipolar cells in fish (lab of L. Lagnado, MRC-LMB, Cambridge, UK). My current research focuses on visual processing in the mice, with special focus on the principal neurons of the retina’s vertical pathway: Photoreceptors, bipolar cells and retinal ganglion cells.
I use a combination of 2-photon imaging of synthetic and genetically encoded calcium biosensors and patterned light stimulation to probe the visual processing of individual and networks of neurons in the isolated retina.
1) Synaptic processing in retinal bipolar cells
Retinal bipolar cells (BCs) are the only neurons forwarding visual information from the photoreceptor array to the feature extracting circuits of the inner retina. In mammals the ~10-12 different types of bipolar cell systematically project to different substrata of the retina’s second synaptic layer, the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Here they form complex feed-forward and feedback synapses with inhibitory amacrine cells (AC) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) which provide all the retina’s output to the brain. A series of recent studies have identified the synaptic terminals of bipolar cells as key sites in visual feature extraction. Using a combination of 2-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology and computational modeling I probe the visual response properties of BCs towards a better understanding of visual signal transformations occurring locally within individual BC synapses.
2) Visual feature extraction in the retina’s vertical pathway
The retina is a sophisticated image processor, breaking visual patterns into increasingly specific parallel representations of the visual world along its vertical pathway. At the level of the spike train leaving the retina only a very small fraction of the visual information sampled by the photoreceptor is retained. In the mouse, visual information is forwarded from 3 types of photoreceptors to 10-12 types of bipolar cells which pass on the information to about 20 types of RGCs. At each processing step, interactions with lateral inhibitory interneurons as well as gap junctional coupling give rise to specific visual response properties of individual retinal neurons. By monitoring the visual responses to a defined set of visual stimuli at each processing level I study the gradual evolution of feature extraction as visual information trickles through the retinal network. The approach is aimed to contribute to a better understanding of which information contained in the original image is ultimately forwarded to the brain and which information is discarded.
3) Visual ecology: retinal coding of asymmetric feature distribution in natural scenes.
Sensory systems have evolved to specifically sample features in the outside world critical to an animal’s survival. Depending on the lifestyle and size of an animal, the importance of particular features differs widely between species. Within the mouse visual system one such evolutionary adaptation is particularly prominent. Rather than uniformly sampling visual information over the entire visual field, the mouse visual system features a pronounced separation of “green” and “blue” light sensitive regions of the visual field, presumably matched to differentially sample visual information above and below the horizon. These “chromatically selective” regions are rooted in the predominant expression of different opsins in cone-photoreceptors positioned at different parts of the retina. I am interested in how the “blue” and “green” system of the mouse acknowledges the particular visual feature distribution in natural scenes about the horizon.
|2014||Retina Suisse Award|
|2013||Teaching award 2013, Graduate School of Neural & Behavioural Sciences, University of Tübingen|
|2013||Attempto 2013 award for Tom Baden, recognizing the publication „Spikes in mammalian bipolar cells support temporal layering of the inner retina“ (Baden T, Berens P, Bethge M, Euler T, Curr Biol 2013, 23(1):48-52).|
|2013||Tübingen University, Fortüne Junior Grant|
|2013||Rank Prize Meeting Computational Vision, Grasmere, UK: Speaker’s Prize|
|2012||GES, Rio de Janeiro, Global Economic Fellowship|
|2012||Eliteprogram der Baden-Württemberg Stiftung für PostDocs|
|2011||J Vis. Neurosci, Young Investigators Prize|
|2008 - 2010||MRC-LMB, Cambridge, Career Development Fellowship|
|2007||Cambridge University, Girton College, Graduates Vice President|
|2006||Cambridge Graduate School, Poster Prize|
|2005||Cambridge Neuroscience, Poster Prize|
|2004||Full BBSRC Research Scholarship|
|2004||Cambridge University, European Trust Bursary and Fellowship|
|2004||Cambridge University, Newton Trust European Research Studentship|
|2004||Cambridge University, Department of Zoology Balfour Stipend|
|2003 and ‘04||Cambridge University, Girton College John B Buckley Scholarship|
|2003 and ‘04||Cambridge University, Girton College Ming Yang Lee Prize|
|2003||Cambridge University, Department of Zoology J A Ramsay Scholarship|
|2001 – 2004||Cambridge University Biological Society|
- PLoS ONE, Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE)
- PLoS Computational Biology
- Nature Communications
- Journal of Neuroscience
|2014||Organiser & lecturer: "IBRO school on Invertebrate Neuroscience", University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania|
|06/2013||Rabat, Morocco. Society of Neuroscientists in Africa – Symposium chair and co-organiser|
|03/2013||Göttingen, German Society for Neuroscience Meeting – Symposium co-chair and co-organiser|
|2012||Co-Founder/Director of NGO “TReND in Africa” (TReNDinAfrica.org)|
|2012, 2013||Organiser & lecturer: “IBRO school on Invertebrate Neuroscience”, KIU, Uganda|
|2011||Organiser & lecturer: “Introduction to Drosophila Neurogenetics”, KIU, Uganda|
- in press Baden T*, Nikolaev A*, Esposti F, Dreosti E, Odermatt B and Lagnado L§. A synaptic mechanism for multiplexing fast and slow visual signals in the retina. PLoS Biology.
- Euler T§, Haverkamp S, Schubert T and Baden T. Retinal Bipolar Cells: Elementary building blocks of vision. Nat. Reviews Neurosci.15:507-519; 2014
- Baden T*, Schubert T*, Chang L, Wei T, Zaichuk M, Wissinger B and Euler T§. A Tale of Two Retinal Domains: Near Optimal Sampling of Achromatic Contrasts in Natural Scenes Through Asymmetric Photoreceptor Distribution. Neuron 80:1206-1217; 2013.
- Yusuf S, Baden T, Prieto-Godino LL (2013) Bridging the Gap: establishing the necessary infrastructure and knowledge for teaching and research in neuroscience in Africa. Metabolic Brain Disease, DOI 10.1007/s11011-013-9443-x
- Baden T, Euler T, Weckström M and Lagnado L. Spikes and Ribbon Synapses in Early Vision. Trends in Neurosciences http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2013.04.006; 2013
- Baden T, Prieto Godino LP, Yusuf S, Berens P (2013) Neurowissenschaften in Afrika – Kooperationen und Perspektiven. Neuroforum 2/13.
- Baden T, Berens P, Bethge M and Euler T. Spikes in Mammalian Bipolar Cells Support Temporal Organisation of the Retina. Curr Biol. 2013 Jan 7;23(1):48-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.006. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
- Auferkorte ON, Baden T, Kaushalya SK, Zabouri N, Rudolph U, Haverkamp S and Euler T. GABA(A) receptors containing the a2 subunit are critical for direction-selective inhibition in the retina, PLoS ONE, 7(4):e35109, 2012.
- Baden T, Esposti F, Nikolaev A and Lagnado L. Spikes in retinal bipolar cells code visual stimuli with millisecond precision. Curr Bio. (21): 1-11. 2011.
- Dreosti E, Esposti F, Baden T and Lagnado L. In vivo evidence that retinal bipolar cells generate spikes modulated by light. Nat. Neurosci 14(8): 951-2. 2011.
- Cederlund ML, Morrissey ME, Baden T, Scholz D, Vendrell V, Lagnado L, Connaughton VP and Kennedy BN. Zebrafish Tg(7.2mab21l2:EGFP) Transgenics reveal a Unique Population of Retinal Amacrine Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52(3):1613-21. 2011.
- Baden T and Hedwig B. Primary Afferent Depolarisation and Frequency Processing in Auditory Afferents. J. Neurosci. 30(44): 14862-9. 2010.
- Baden T and Hedwig B. Dynamics of free intracellular Ca2+ during synaptic and spike activity of cricket tibial motoneurons. Eur J Neurosci. 29(7):1357-6. 2009.
- Baden T, Zorovic M and Hedwig B. Motorische Kontrolle der akustischen Orientierung von Grillen. Neuroforum 4:267-273. 2008.
- Baden T and Hedwig B. Front leg movements and tibial motoneurons underlying auditory steering in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus deGeer). J Exp. Biol. 211(13):2123-33. 2008.
- Baden T and Hedwig B. Neurite-specific Ca2+ dynamics underlying sound processing in an auditory interneurone. Dev Neurobiol. 67(1):68-80. 2007.
- Becker AJ, Klein H, Baden T, Aigner L, Normann S, Elger CE, Schramm J, Wiestler OD and Blumcke I. Mutational and expression analysis of the reelin pathway components CDK5 and doublecortin in gangliogliomas. Acta Neuropathol.. 104(4):403-8. 2002.
- Becker AJ, Urbach H, Scheffler B, Baden T, Normann S, Lahl R, Pannek HW, Tuxhorn I, Elger CE, Schramm J, Wiestler OD and Blumcke I. Focal cortical dysplasia of Taylor's balloon cell type: mutational analysis of the TSC1 gene indicates a pathogenic relationship to tuberous sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 52(1):29-37. 2002.