Euler Lab

Ophthalmic Research

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  1. Román Rosón M*, Bauer Y*, Berens P#, Euler T#, Busse L# (2017) Preprint: Mouse dLGN receives input from a diverse population of retinal ganglion cells with limited convergence. bioRxiv 10.1101/322164.
  2. Berens P, Freeman J, Deneux T, Chenkov N, McColgan T, Speiser A, Macke JH, Turaga S, Mineault P, Rupprecht P, Gerhard S, Friedrich RW, Friedrich J, Paninski L, Pachitariu M, Harris KD, Bolte B, Machado TA, Ringach D, Reimer J, Froudarakis E, Euler T, Roman-Roson M, Theis L, Tolias AS, Bethge M (2017) Preprint: Community-based benchmarking improves spike inference from two-photon calcium imaging data. bioRxiv 10.1101/177956.


  1. Veruki ML, Schubert T (2018) Neural Circuits: When Neurons ‘Remember’ Their Connectivity (Dispatch). Curr Biol 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.059.
  2. Baden T, Schubert T, Berens P, Euler T. "The Functional Organization of Vertebrate Retinal Circuits for Vision." In: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Ed. S. Murray Sherman. New York: Oxford University Press, 10.1093/acrefore/9780190264086.013.68.
  3. Vighi E, Trifunović D, Veiga-Crespo P, Rentsch A, Hoffmann D, Sahaboglu A, Strasser T, Kulkarni M, Bertolotti E, van den Heuvel A, Peters T, Reijerkerk A, Euler T, Ueffing M, Schwede F, Genieser HG, Gaillard P, Marigo V, Ekström P, Paquet-Durand F (2018) Combination of cGMP analogue and drug delivery system provides functional protection in hereditary retinal degeneration. PNAS 10.1073/pnas.1718792115.
  4. Maia Chagas A (2018) Haves and have nots must find a better way: The case for open scientific hardware. PLoS Biol 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000014.


  1. Klindt D, Ecker A, Euler T, Bethge M (2017). Neural system identification for large populations separating “what” and “where”. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS). arXiv:1711.02653 [stat.ML] (Submitted on 7 Nov 2017 (v1), last revised 29 Jan 2018 (this version, v2))
  2. Chapot CA, Behrens C, Rogerson LE, Baden T, Pop S, Berens P, Euler T#, Schubert T# (2017) Local signals in mouse horizontal cell dendrites. Curr Biol 10.1016/j.cub.2017.10.050.
  3. Maia Chagas A, Prieto-Godino LL, Arrenberg AB, Baden T (2017) The €100 lab: A 3D-printable open-source platform for fluorescence microscopy, optogenetics, and accurate temperature control during behaviour of zebrafish, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Biology 10.1371/journal.pbio.2002702.
  4. Berens P, Euler T (2017). Neuronal Diversity In The Retina. Neuroforum 23(2):A93-A101, 10.1515/nf-2016-A055
  5. Rogerson LE, Behrens C, Euler T, Berens P, Schubert T (2017) Review: Connectomics of synaptic microcircuits: lessons from the outer retina. J Physiol 10.1113/JP273671.
  6. Franke K, Baden T (2017) Review: General features of inhibition in the inner retina. J Physiol 10.1113/JP273648.
  7. Chapot CA, Euler T, Schubert T (2017) Review: How do horizontal cells "talk" to cone photoreceptors? Different levels of complexity at the cone-horizontal cell synapse. J Physiol 10.1113/JP274177.
  8. Franke K*, Berens P*, Schubert T, Bethge M, Euler T#, Baden T# (2017). Inhibition decorrelates visual feature representations in the inner retina. Nature 10.1038/nature21394.


  1. Behrens C., Schubert T., Haverkamp S., Euler T., Berens P. (2016) Connectivity map of bipolar cells and photoreceptors in the mouse retina. eLife 10.7554/eLife.20041
  2. Baden T, Euler T (2016). Dispatch: Retinal Physiology: Non-Bipolar-Cell Excitatory Drive in the Inner Retina. Curr Biol doi:
  3. Euler T, Baden T (2016) News & Views: Species-specific motion detectors. Nature doi:10.1038/nature18454.
  4. Kulkarni M, Trifunović D, Schubert T, Euler T, Paquet-Durand F (2016) Calcium dynamics change in degenerating cone photoreceptors. Human Molecular Genetics; doi:
  5. Franke K*, Berens P*, Schubert T, Bethge M, Euler T#, Baden T# (2016) Balanced excitation and inhibition decorrelates visual feature representation in the mammalian inner retina. bioRxiv doi:
    *authors contributed equally, #corresponding author
  6. Theis L, Berens P, Froudarakis E, Reimer J, Roman-Roson M, Baden T, Euler T, Tolias AS, Bethge M (2016). Benchmarking spike rate inference in population calcium imaging. Neuron 90(3): pp. 471-482. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.04.014
  7. Baden T*, Berens P*, Franke K*, Román Rosón M, Bethge M, & Euler T# (2016). The functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. Nature 10.1038/nature16468. *authors contributed equally, #corresponding author
    For data see:
    Baden T, Berens P, Franke K, Román Rosón M, Bethge M, Euler T (2016) Data from: The functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. Dryad Digital Repository. doi: 10.5061/dryad.d9v38.


  1. Schubert T, Gleiser C, Heiduschka P, Franz C, Nagel-Wolfrum K, Sahaboglu A, Weisschuh N, Eske G, Rohbock K, Rieger N, Paquet-Durand F, Wissinger B, Wolfrum U, Hirt B, Singer W, Rüttiger L, Zimmermann U, Knipper M. (2015) Deletion of myosin VI causes slow retinal optic neuropathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-relevant retinal phenotype. Cell Mol Life Sci., May 6., doi:10.1007/s00018-015-1913-3.
  2. Kulkarni M, Schubert T, Baden T, Wissinger B, Euler T*, Paquet-Durand F*. (2015) Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina. J. Vis. Exp. (99), e52588, doi:10.3791/52588.
  3. Baden T, Chagas MA, Gage G, Marzullo T, Prieto-Godino LL, Euler T (2015) Open Labware: 3-D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment. PLoS Biol. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002086
  4. Lee SC, Meyer A, Schubert T, Hüser L, Dedek K, Haverkamp S (2015) Morphology and connectivity of the small bistratified A8 amacrine cell in the mouse retina. J Comp Neurol doi: 10.1002/cne.23752.
  5. Euler T and Schubert T (2015) Multiple independent oscillatory networks in the degenerating retina. Front. Cell. Neurosci. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00444
  6. Jiang X, Shen S, Cadwell CR, Berens P, Sinz F, Ecker AS, Patel S, Tolias AS (2015). Principles of connectivity among morphologically defined cell types in adult neocortex. Science 350(6264), DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9462


  1. Arango-Gonzalez B, Trifunović D, Sahaboglu A, Kranz K, Michalakis S, Farinelli P, Koch S, Koch F, Cottet S, Janssen-Bienhold U, Dedek K, Biel M, Zrenner E, Euler T, Ekström P, Ueffing M, and Paquet-Durand F (2014) Identification of a common non-apoptotic cell death mechanism in hereditary retinal degeneration. PLoS One 9(11):e112142. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112142.
  2. Haq, W., Arango-Gonzalez B., Zrenner E., Euler T., Schubert T. (2014) Synaptic remodeling generates synchronous oscillations in the degenerated outer mouse retina. Front. Neural Circuits, doi: 10.3389/fncir.2014.00108
  3. Kemmler R, Schultz K, Dedek K, Euler T, Schubert T (2014) Differential Regulation of Cone Calcium Signals by Different Horizontal Cell Feedback Mechanisms in the Mouse Retina. J Neuroscience 34(35):11826-11843; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0272-14.2014
  4. Euler T, Haverkamp S, Schubert T, Baden T (2014) Retinal bipolar cells: elementary building blocks of vision. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15:507–519, doi:10.1038/nrn3783


  1. Baden T, Euler T (2013) Early Vision: Where (Some of) the Magic Happens, Curr Biol 23(24):R1096-R1098,
  2. Yusuf S, Baden T, Prieto-Godino LL (2013) Bridging the Gap: establishing the necessary infrastructure and knowledge for teaching and research in neuroscience in Africa. Metabolic Brain Disease, DOI 10.1007/s11011-013-9443-x
  3. Baden T#, Schubert T#, Chang L, Wei T, Zaichuk M, Wissinger B, Euler T. (2013) A Tale of Two Retinal Domains: Near Optimal Sampling of Achromatic Contrasts in Natural Scenes Through Asymmetric Photoreceptor Distribution. Neuron 80(5):1206-1217, doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.09.030. # authors contributed equally.
  4. Baden T., Euler T., Weckström M., Lagnado L. (2013) Spikes and ribbon synapses in early vision. TiNS
  5. Puller C, Ivanova E, Euler T, Haverkamp S, Schubert T. (2013) OFF bipolar cells express distinct types of dendritic glutamate receptors in the mouse retina. Neurosci 243:136-48.
  6. Schubert T., Hoon M., Euler T., Lukasiewicz P.D., Wong R.O.L. (2013) Developmental regulation and activity-dependent maintenance of GABAergic presynaptic inhibition onto rod bipolar cell axonal terminals. Neuron 78(1):124-137.
  7. Chang L, Breuninger T, Euler T. (2013) Novel chromatic coding from cone-type unselective circuits in the mouse retina. Neuron, 77(3):559–571.
  8. Baden T, Behrens P, Bethge M, Euler T. (2013) Spikes in Mammalian Bipolar Cells Support Temporal Layering of the Inner Retina. Curr Biol. 23(1):48-52.


  1. Wei T, Schubert T, Paquet-Durand F, Tanimoto N, Chang L, Koeppen K, Ott T, Griesbeck O, Seeliger MW, Euler T*, Wissinger B. (2012) Light-driven calcium signals in mouse cone photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 32(20):6981-94.
  2. Auferkorte ON, Baden T, Kaushalya SK, Zabouri N, Rudolph U, Haverkamp S, Euler T. (2012) GABA(A) receptors containing the α2 subunit are critical for direction-selective inhibition in the retina. PLoS One 7(4):e35109.
  3. Tanimoto N, Sothilingam V, Euler T, Ruth P, Seeliger MW, Schubert T. (2012) BK channels mediate pathway-specific modulation of visual signals in the in vivo mouse retina. J Neurosci. 32(14):4861-6.


  1. Borst A, Euler T. (2011) Seeing things in motion: models, circuits, and mechanisms. Neuron 71(6):974-94.
  2. Breuninger T, Puller C, Haverkamp S, Euler T. (2011) Chromatic bipolar cell pathways in the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 31(17):6504-17.
  3. Briggman KL, Euler T. (2011) Bulk electroporation and population calcium imaging in the adult mammalian retina. J Neurophysiol. 105(5):2601-9.


  1. Schubert T, Euler T. (2010) Retinal processing: global players like it local. Curr Biol. 20(11):R486-8.
  2. Margolis DJ, Gartland AJ, Euler T, Detwiler PB. (2010) Dendritic calcium signaling in ON and OFF mouse retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 30(21):7127-38.
  3. Rathbun DL, Warland DK, Usrey WM. (2010) Spike timing and information transmission at retinogeniculate synapses J. Neurosci. 30(41):13558-66.
  4. Schubert T, Huckfeldt RM, Parker E, Campbell JE, Wong ROL. (2010) Assembly of the outer retina in the absence of GABA synthesis in horizontal cells. Neural Development 5:15 doi:10.1186/1749-8104-5-15.

2009 and earlier

  1. Dedek K, Breuninger T, de Sevilla Müller LP, Maxeiner S, Schultz K, Janssen-Bienhold U, Willecke K, Euler T, Weiler R. (2009) A novel type of interplexiform amacrine cell in the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 30(2):217-28.
  2. Schlichtenbrede FC, Mittmann W, Rensch F, Vom Hagen F, Jonas JB, Euler T. (2009) Toxicity assessment of intravitreal triamcinolone and bevacizumab in a retinal explant mouse model using two-photon microscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 50(12):5880-7.
  3. Euler T, Hausselt SE, Margolis DJ, Breuninger T, Castell X, Detwiler PB, Denk W. (2009) Eyecup scope--optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina. Pflugers Arch. 457(6):1393-414.
  4. Margolis DJ, Newkirk G, Euler T, Detwiler PB. (2008) Functional stability of retinal ganglion cells after degeneration-induced changes in synaptic input. J Neurosci. 28(25):6526-36.
  5. Hausselt SE, Euler T, Detwiler PB, Denk W. (2007) A dendrite-autonomous mechanism for direction selectivity in retinal starburst amacrine cells. PLoS Biol. 5(7):e185.
  6. Duebel J, Haverkamp S, Schleich W, Feng G, Augustine GJ, Kuner T, Euler T. (2006) Two-photon imaging reveals somatodendritic chloride gradient in retinal ON-type bipolar cells expressing the biosensor Clomeleon. Neuron 49(1):81-94.
  7. Oesch N, Euler T, Taylor WR. (2005) Direction-selective dendritic action potentials in rabbit retina. Neuron 47(5):739-50.
  8. Haverkamp S, Wässle H, Duebel J, Kuner T, Augustine GJ, Feng G, Euler T. (2005) The primordial, blue-cone color system of the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 25(22):5438-45.
  9. Hasan MT, Friedrich RW, Euler T, Larkum ME, Giese G, Both M, Duebel J, Waters J, Bujard H, Griesbeck O, Tsien RY, Nagai T, Miyawaki A, Denk W. (2004) Functional fluorescent Ca2+ indicator proteins in transgenic mice under TET control. PLoS Biol. 2004 Jun;2(6):e163.
  10. Huang L, Max M, Margolskee RF, Su H, Masland RH, Euler T. (2003) G protein subunit G gamma 13 is coexpressed with G alpha o, G beta 3, and G beta 4 in retinal ON bipolar cells. J Comp Neurol. 455(1):1-10.
  11. Euler T, Detwiler PB, Denk W. (2002) Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. Nature 418(6900):845-52.
  12. Euler T, Denk W. Dendritic processing. (2001) Curr Opin Neurobiol 2001 11:415-422.
  13. Euler T, Masland RH. (2000) Light-evoked responses of bipolar cells in a mammalian retina. J Neurophysiol. 83(4):1817-29.
  14. Rockhill RL, Euler T, Masland RH. (2000) Spatial order within but not between types of retinal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(5):2303-7.
  15. Euler T, Wässle H. (1998) Different contributions of GABAA and GABAC receptors to rod and cone bipolar cells in a rat retinal slice preparation. J Neurophysiol. 79(3):1384-95.
  16. Euler T, Schneider H, Wässle H. (1996) Glutamate responses of bipolar cells in a slice preparation of the rat retina. J Neurosci. 16(9):2934-44.
  17. Euler T, Wässle H. (1995) Immunocytochemical identification of cone bipolar cells in the rat retina. J Comp Neurol. 361(3):461-78.
  18. Brandstätter JH, Greferath U, Euler T, Wässle H. (1995) Co-stratification of GABAA receptors with the directionally selective circuitry of the rat retina. Vis Neurosci. 12(2):345-58.

Book chapters and other articles

  1. Baden T, Prieto Godino LP, Yusuf S, Berens P (2013) Neurowissenschaften in Afrika – Kooperationen und Perspektiven. Neuroforum 2/13.
  2. Euler T, Hausselt SE. (2012) Wie die Netzhaut die Richtung von Bewegungen berechnet (Computation of motion direction in the vertebrate retina) Neuroforum 3/2012 234-245, DOI 10.1007/s13295-012-0033-x
  3. Euler T, Hausselt SE. (2008) Direction Selective Cells. In: Vision I, The Senses – A Comprehensive Reference (Masland RH, Albright TD, eds), pp 413-422, San Diego: Academic Press.
  4. Hausselt S.E., Euler T. (2008) Starburst Amacrine Cells and Direction Selectivity. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Binder MD, Hirokawa N, Windhorst U, eds) 18:3501-3507. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2)
  5. Euler T. (2003) Richtungsmelder im Auge. Gehirn & Geist (Verlag Spektrum der Wissenschaft) 4:64-67.
  6. Euler T. (2001) Der Netzhaut beim 'Denken' zusehen ... Bioforum 12:896-897.